Javanese Mystical Movements
"There are numerous forms of mysticism. The majestic grandeur of nature evoked an intuitive awe in man and a feeling of unity. Some time in history members of the homo sapiens species began directing their attention inside themselves as they received indications of a magical and spiritual nature. ..."

Relaxed Meditation: Selected Sumarah Teachings
Texts on Sumarah by Paul Stange can be found on his website, e.g. "Relaxed Meditation: Selected Sumarah Teachings" originally published by the Department of Asian Studies, Western Australian Institute of Technology (WAIT), Perth in 1977. His thesis "The Sumarah movement in Javanese mysticism" can be found under "Writings/Books".

Sumarah: A Study of the Art of Living
David Howe's thesis, 'The Art of Living', can be found on his website ( It is a useful description of Sumarah practices, however readers should be aware that the rest of his site reflects his personal Brazilian experiences which are extremely personal and very different from what we know about Sumarah from our experience in Java.